如何(不)让你的Python代码不再晦涩难懂

首先欣赏一下,Python中的Python之禅

>>> import this
The Zen of Python, by Tim Peters

Beautiful is better than ugly.
Explicit is better than implicit.
Simple is better than complex.
Complex is better than complicated.
Flat is better than nested.
Sparse is better than dense.
Readability counts.
Special cases aren't special enough to break the rules.
Although practicality beats purity.
Errors should never pass silently.
Unless explicitly silenced.
In the face of ambiguity, refuse the temptation to guess.
There should be one-- and preferably only one --obvious way to do it.
Although that way may not be obvious at first unless you're Dutch.
Now is better than never.
Although never is often better than *right* now.
If the implementation is hard to explain, it's a bad idea.
If the implementation is easy to explain, it may be a good idea.
Namespaces are one honking great idea -- let's do more of those!

Python代码简单胜于复杂,明确胜于晦涩
下面举几个例子感受一下:

比如lambda的主体是单个表达式(而不是语句),所以只能将有限的逻辑封装进一个lambda中。

当然如果,你能把Python中大部分的语句编写成基于表达式的等价代码,就能简练你的Python代码。

例一:

if a:
	b
else b:
	c

等价于>>>

b if a else c

等价于>>>

((a and b) or c)

例二:

def lower(x, y):return (x if x < y else y)
	

等价于>>>

lower = (lambda x, y: x if x < y else y)

虽然这些技巧很好用,但是万不得已不要多用,会影响你的程序可读性。虽然代码少了但是变得晦涩难懂了。

这也就是为什么lambda一般只针对较小的一段内联代码。而def用于更复杂的代码编写。当你视情况去灵活运用它们时,就可以真正做到Python之禅的内容了。

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